Representing relations using digraphs
A directed graph, or digraph, consists of a set V of vertices (or
nodes) together with a set E of ordered pairs of elements of V called
The vertex a is called the initial vertex of the edge (a,b), and the
vertex b is called the terminal vertex of this edge.
An edge of the form (a,a) is called a loop.
The above digraph represents the relation E={(a,a), (a,c), (a,d), (c,a)}
What can we say about the digraph representing a 1) reflexive,
2) symmetric, 3) antisymmetric, 4) transitive relation?